Previous Editions


After a first session common to all participants dedicated to a general introduction on international systems of protection of human rights and related mechanisms, the programme will develop into the three mentioned thematic clusters (Business, Development and Human Rights; Religious Freedom and the Rights of Religious Minorities; and Human Rights Defenders), among which participants will have to choose.


Business, Development and Human Rights - Cluster responsible: Prof. Fabrizio Marrella

Those active in human rights circles, from seasoned experts to curious students, have in the last decade tried to comprehend the implications for human rights of the increased globalisation of economic exchanges. The benefits that globalisation has delivered and the potential it carries for developing countries to move their populations out of poverty are accompanied by significant risks and well documented abuses of human rights. Transnational companies have been an important engine of this process and have ripped major benefits as they moved into new markets. This course is about the responsibilities of TNCs for their human rights impacts. More broadly it is about public law and corporate voluntarism, about regulation and business practice. Lectures will explain regulation, advocacy, business ethics, and corporate voluntarism in several human rights areas and in various business contexts.
The aim is to provide a balanced view covering both the legal framework and corporate practice while taking an applied focus. At the end of the course students should be armed with concrete examples and conceptual tools, have an increased sensitivity to the main issues accompanying globalisation, the potential solutions and points of leverage, and an appreciation of the complexity of the debate surrounding business and human rights.
Learning Objectives
• Insights in how codes of conduct practically operate and on other practical aspects of business and human rights.
• In-depth knowledge concerning the circumstances in which international human rights standards are created and applied in regard to private/public economic exchanges;
• Knowledge about the role of states, the European Union, international organisations, business enterprises and associations in enforcing and promoting corporate responsibilities in relation to human rights.

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Religious Freedom and the Rights of Religious Minorities - Cluster Responsible: Prof. Peter Danchin

Despite formal guarantees entrenched in modern international conventions and national constitutions, religious freedom and the rights of religious minorities have emerged as contentious and charged issues in human rights law, politics and praxis.
There are multiple reasons for this, including the increased salience of religious identity in the world, and the intellectual and political resistance posed to secularist assumptions about human flourishing by a variety of social movements. While the larger consequences of such developments are unknown, what is clear is that the right to religious freedom has become a key site of legal and political struggles to negotiate communal relations across lines of religious difference.
This cluster will provide a critical introduction to questions of freedom, religion, community and the individual as they are today being contested in normative and legal discourses on the right to religious freedom. After considering the basic nature, scope and history of the right to religious liberty in the UN and European human rights regimes, the course will focus on:
(1) the case law of the European Court of Human Rights since 2000 involving claims by religious communities (both majorities and minorities) — key among them claims to religious freedom by European Muslims — and the ways in which this jurisprudence is being challenged and unsettled by a variety of actors both inside and outside the Court;
(2) the legal and political salience of minority/majority frameworks and the protection accorded to religious minorities in a democracy;
(3) the relationship between secularism, religion and the state and different models of religion-state relations; and
(4) what religion is imagined to be in struggles over religious liberty.

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Human Rights Defenders - Cluster responsible: Prof. Florence Benoît-Rohmer

Human Rights Defenders is a term used to describe people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights. The Declaration on Human Rights Defenders adopted by the United Nations on December 9, 1998 marked a historic achievement in the struggle toward better protection of those at risk for carrying out legitimate human rights activities and is the first UN instrument that recognizes the importance and legitimacy of the work of human rights defenders, as well as their need for better protection.
Following the adoption of the UN Declaration, a number of initiatives were taken, both at the international and regional level, such as the mandate of the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights defenders, the mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the African Commission on Human Rights and Peoples' Rights.
The EU has also adopted guidelines aiming at supporting human rights defenders and promoting practical suggestions at enhancing EU action in relation to this issue. The cluster aims at studying ways to protect human rights defenders vis-à-vis state actions. It will combine theoretical seminars and practical exercises and will target students and practitioners who want to be acknowledge on the subject. It will also be beneficial for human rights professionals working in the field

Scientific Director

Prof. Dr. Florence Benoît-Rohmer

Prof. Benoît-Rohmer took up the function as EIUC Secretary General on 1 January 2009. Born in Strasbourg, Florence Benoît-Rohmer holds a PhD in Public Law.
President of the Université Robert Schuman (URS), Strasbourg, from 2003 to 2008, Florence Benoît-Rohmer is Professor at the Law Faculty in Strasbourg. She is Director of the Master programme in Human Rights at the University of Strasbourg and has served as Vice-President of EIUC from 2002 till 2008 and as French national director of the European Master's Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation (E.MA) since its inception in 1997.
Prof. Benoît-Rohmer is acting as human rights expert for the Council of Europe, was member of the European Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights set up by the European Commission, and is currently the President of the Scientific Committee of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the EU. She is also member of the scientific committees of several international journals specialised in human rights, and in particular minority rights.


Patricia Bocchi

Dott.ssa Bocchi is a European Union civil servant. She has been working the last ten years in the Human Rights unit of the External Relations Directorate General (now European External Action Service). She is in charge of human rights education, including Master Programmes in Human Rights and Democratisation and staff training, and is assistant to the Head of Unit on horizontal matters. She used to be part of the election desk and in charge of programming of projects funded in ACP countries through the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights.
Born in 1969 in Ancona, Italy. Graduated in 1991 in Economics and Finance (ICHEC-Brussels) and then studied International and European Public Law in the Netherlands (KUB Tilburg).
She joined the European Commission in 1993 in the Development Directorate General (Southern Africa unit) where she dealt with the Special Programme for the victims of apartheid in South Africa. She then joined the unit dealing with human rights and democracy in the ACP countries, in charge of human rights projects in Southern Africa including on election assistance and observation.

Peter Danchin

Peter Danchin is Associate Professor of Law and Director of the International and Comparative Law Program at the University of Maryland School of Law. His scholarship focuses on competing conceptions of the right to freedom of religion and belief in international legal theory and on tensions between liberal and value pluralist approaches.
He is co-editor with Elizabeth A. Cole of Protecting the Human Rights of Religious Minorities in Eastern Europe (Columbia, 2002) and his articles in this area have been published in the Columbia Journal of Transnational Law; Yale Journal of International Law; Journal of Law and Religion; Harvard International Law Journal; Duke Forum for Law and Social Change; and Michigan Journal of International Law (forthcoming 2011).
Danchin earned his B.A. and LL.B. with First Class Honors from Melbourne University where he was Editor-in-Chief of the Melbourne University Law Review, and his LL.M. and J.S.D. from Columbia Law School where he was a Bretzfelder International Law Fellow. Before joining the faculty at Maryland, he was lecturer and director of the human rights program at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs.
In 1999, he served as a foreign law clerk to Chief Justice Arthur Chaskalson of the Constitutional Court of South Africa. He teaches international law, international human rights, South African constitutional law, and comparative public policy and law reform. From 1997-2000, he taught in a research and training program conducted by the Center for the Study of Human Rights at Columbia University on Religion, Human Rights and Religious Freedom.

Vincent Forest

Vincent Forest joined Front Line in July 2006 as Head of the European Union Office. Vincent Forest has a journalism background in European and International Affairs. He firstly worked as a freelance journalist for four years, during which he covered geopolitics and human rights issues, mainly related to the Middle East and Eastern Europe.
In 1994, he joined the francophone section of Amnesty International Belgium as press officer - he chaired the section from 2003 to 2006. Between 1996 and 2006, he worked as Information Officer with the European Anti-Poverty Network, raising awareness on poverty and social exclusion issues within the European Union.

Nazila Ghanea-Hercock

Dr. Nazila Ghanea teaches International Human Rights Law at the University of Oxford. She was the founding editor of the international journal of Religion and Human Rights and is a Trustee of the One World Trust. She has been a visiting academic at a number of institutions including Columbia and NYU, and previously taught at the University of London and Keele University in the UK.
Nazila’s research spans freedom of religion or belief, minority rights, discrimination law and human rights in the Middle East. Her publications include nine books and three UN publications (the expert contribution for the February 2011 OHCHR expert workshop on The prohibition of incitement to national, racial or religious hatred; the October 2008 OHCHR seminar on The links between articles 19 and 20 of the ICCCPR, Freedom of expression and advocacy of religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence and the May 2003 UN paper "Ethnic and Religious Groups in the Islamic Republic of Iran" tabled at the Working Group on Minorities, session addressing Policy suggestions for the integration of minorities through participation in public life.
Nazila has acted as a human rights consultant/expert for a number of governments, the UN, UNESCO, OSCE, Council of Europe and the EU. She has facilitated international human rights law training for a range of professional bodies, lectured widely and carried out first hand human rights field research in a number of countries including Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom.

Charles Hirschkind

Charles Hirschkind is an Associate Professor at the College of Letters & Science of the University of California, Berkeley. His research interests concern religious practice, media technologies, and emergent forms of political community in the Middle East, North America, and Europe.
Taking contemporary developments within the traditions of Islam as his primary focus, he has explored how various religious practices and institutions have been revised and renewed both by modern norms of social and political life, and by the styles of consumption and culture linked to global mass media practices.

Krzysztof Drzewicki

Krzysztof Drzewicki is an LL.D., Dr Habil., Professor of Public International Law, University of Gdansk, Poland (on leave 1998-2010). He joined diplomatic service and was appointed the Government Agent before the European Commission and Court of Human Rights (1994-2003).
He was seconded as Minister Counsellor to the Permanent Representation of Poland to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg from 1999 till 2003 where he had continued to plead before the European Court of Human Rights.
For the period of 1998-2002 he was elected deputy chair and then chair of the Steering Committee of Human Rights (CDDH). From 2003 to 2010 he was Senior Legal Adviser to the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, The Hague.
Since 2010 he has resumed his work as minister counsellor at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and his academic work at the University of Gdansk.
He has written more than a hundred scholarly contributions, mainly on the international protection of human rights, international humanitarian law of armed conflicts and international organisations.

Ian Hurd

Ian Hurd is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at Northwestern University. He studies international law, politics, and organizations at Northwestern University and is currently a visiting fellow at the Niehaus Center on Globalization and Governance at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University.
His work is on public international law, the theory and practice of international organizations, and international relations theory. He has published on organization theory and international institutions, the politics of legitimacy at the United Nations, UN reform, labor standards, and the International Criminal Court and has other projects on international human rights instruments, the practice of diplomacy, international criminal law on torture, and constructivist methodology in International Relations.
He is also involved in research on the international whaling regime, international diplomacy, and international theory.

Daniel Kronen

As a lawyer, Daniel Kronen has worked in a major German law firm and in an engineering company. Following to consulting companies on Corporate Responsibility strategy and communications for several years, he joined the Siemens Corporate Responsibility team in 2006.
He worked closely with the Siemens Corporate Supply Chain and Procurement department to develop the Code of Conduct for Siemens suppliers and the related monitoring instruments. Daniel had the project lead for the Siemens Corporate Responsibility/Sustainability Reports 2006 to 2008. Since September 2008 Daniel Kronen is with the Siemens Compliance Organization working as senior manager Compliance Strategy and Organizational Development.
He was with the United Nations Global Compact task force for reporting on the UN GC 10th principle; the reporting guidance was published in 2010. Since a couple of years Daniel focuses on integrity topics such as human rights and related issues.

Saba Mahmood

Saba Mahmood is an Associate Professor at the Department of Anthropology of the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests lie in exploring historically specific articulations of secular modernity in postcolonial societies, with particular attention to issues of subject formation, religiosity, embodiment, and gender.
Currently she is examining secular-liberal interpretations of Islam in the context of the Middle East and South Asia.

Christine Astrig Mardirossian

Ms Christine Astrig Mardirossian holds a degree in political science, international relations and strategic studies from the Paris I University, Sorbonne.
She operated as a human rights field worker and programme manager in the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) field presences in Armenia, Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1999 to 2008. Ms Mardirossian then held the post of Deputy Head of the Human Rights Department of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE ODIHR) where she headed the OSCE ODIHR Focal Point on Human Rights Defenders and National Human Rights Institutions. Since July 2010, she is working as an Adviser to the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights and is in charge of the human rights defenders programme.
Ms Mardirossian’s field of expertise includes the protection of human rights defenders and promotion of their work, human rights in the military and law enforcement bodies, access to rights for vulnerable groups as well as a range of human rights issues in post-conflict situations.

Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Marrella

Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Marrella is the E.MA Programme Director since September 2008. He was member of the EIUC Board since the EIUC foundation in 2002 until 2008, and he has lectured in the E.MA Programme in the thematic section "Economic globalisation and human rights".
Prof. Marrella speaks fluently four languages: English, French, Spanish and Italian and he is professor of International Law at the University "Cà Foscari" of Venice (Italy) where he has taught International Law, International Investment Law and International Business Law. He holds the highest Doctorates in Law with top grades from the University of Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne and Bologna University as well as the Diploma from The Hague Academy of International Law.
In 2006 he has been appointed professeur invité at the Université Robert Schuman of Strasbourg. Before returning to Venice, his home town, he was formerly Adjunct Professor of International Law at the IHEAL (Institute for Advanced Studies on Latin America) of the Université de Paris III-La Sorbonne Nouvelle and Lecturer at the Institut de Droit Comparé de Paris (Université de Paris II-Panthéon Assas).
In 2007 and 2008 he taught and served as vice-Director of the Harvard University-Cà Foscari summer school. Prof. Marrella has participated in international symposia and has given invited lectures at a range of Universities and professional organisations both in Europe, the U.S.A. and other countries of the five continents.
He is a member of the International Law Association (ILA); the European Society of International Law (ESIL); Italian Society for International Law (SIDI/ISIL); Italian Arbitration Association (AIA); French Society for International Law (SFDI); Société de Legislation comparée; Association des Anciens de la Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris (C.I.U.P.); Association of Attenders and Alumni of the Hague Academy of International Law. He has written extensively in the field of International Law.

Manfred Nowak

Manfred Nowak graduated from the Vienna Law School (Dr. iur. 1973) and from Columbia University New York (LL.M. 1975).
He has been professor at the Institute of Constitutional and Administrative Law at the University of Vienna since 1986. He was member of the Austrian Delegation to the U.N. Commission on Human Rights (1986 and 1993) as well as director of the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM) at the University of Utrecht (1987-1989). In 1989, he founded the Austrian Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights in Vienna and coordinated NGO-parallel events during the 1993 UN Conference for Human Rights in Vienna while he also was Professor of Law at the Austrian Federal Academy of Public Administration in Vienna until 2002.
As U.N. expert on missing persons in the former Yugoslavia he started a process aiming at the identification of missing persons through exhumation of mortal remains between 1994 and 1997. From 1996-2003, Manfred Nowak was a judge at the Human Rights Chamber in Bosnia. Since 2000, he is head of an independent human rights commission at the Austrian Interior Ministry. From 2002 to 2003 he was visiting professor at the Raoul Wallenberg of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at the University of Lund.
He has been a UN expert on legal questions on enforced disappearances since 2002 and was appointed UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment in 2004 with a mandate until 2010. In addition, Manfred Nowak is also Chairperson of the European Masters Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation (since 2000).
Manfred Nowak has published more than 400 books and articles on international, constitutional, administrative, and human rights law, including the standard commentary on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. He was awarded the UNESCO Prize for the Teaching of Human Rights in 1994 and the Bruno Kreisky Prize for Human Rights in 2007.

Elizabeth Shakman Hurd

Elizabeth Shakman Hurd is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Political Science of the Northwestern University. She studies international politics, international law, and relations between Europe, the United States and the Middle East.
Her research focuses on the intersection between religion and law in contemporary global politics.
Central to her interests are the politics of international human rights, global legal pluralism, the state management of religion, and the international politics of religious freedom.

Winnifred Fallers Sullivan

Winnifred Fallers Sullivan is a Professor at the University at Buffalo Law School and Director of the Law and Religion Program. She studies the intersection of religion and law in the modern period, particularly the phenomenology of modern religion as it is shaped in its encounter with law.
Professor Sullivan serves on the editorial board of the Religion and Society series at deGruyter; and is currently on the executive committee of the National Association for the Study of Religion, the American Society for the Study of Religion and the Law, Religion and Culture Group of the American Academy of Religion.
During the 2007-2008 academic year, Professor Sullivan was the Lilly Foundation fellow at the National Humanities Center.
She has also been a visiting fellow at the American Bar Foundation and at the Martin Marty Center at the University of Chicago. Professor Sullivan lectures widely in the U.S. and abroad.

George Ulrich

George Ulrich is since August 2009 Rector of the Riga Graduate School of Law. Prior to this, he served as Secretary General of the European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation (EIUC, based in Venice, Italy) from 2003-2009, and as Academic Coordinator of the European Master’s Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation (E.MA) from 2001-2004.
From 1999-2001 he was employed as Senior Researcher at the Danish Centre for Human Rights.
And from 1996-1998 as Research Fellow at the Institute of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, and visiting researcher at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. He obtained his Ph.D. as well as an M.A. in Philosophy from the University of Toronto, Canada, and holds the degree of Cand. Mag. in Social Anthropology and History of Ideas from Aarhus University, Denmark.
Among his current research interests are issues related to: the philosophy of human rights, health and human rights, international medical ethics, professional ethics, and ethics for human rights professionals.

Jan Wouters

Jan Wouters (°1964) is Professor of International Law and International Organizations, Jean Monnet Chair Ad Personam EU and Global Governance and Director of the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies and Institute for International Law at the University of Leuven (KULeuven). He is Visiting Professor at the College of Europe, President of the Flemish Foreign Affairs Council and Of Counsel at Linklaters.
He is Member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Sciences and Arts. He studied law and philosophy in Antwerp and Yale University (LLM 1990), was a Visiting Researcher at Harvard Law School and obtained his PhD at KULeuven (1996).
He taught at the Universities of Antwerp and Maastricht, was Visiting Professor at Liège and Kyushu University and Référendaire at the European Court of Justice (1991-1994). He is Editor of International Encyclopedia of Intergovernmental Organizations and Vice-Director of Revue belge de droit international.
He has published widely (380 publications including 30 books, 70 international journal articles and 90 chapters in international books).
Apart from his participation in many national and international research projects and networks, he often trains international and national officials, advises a number of international organisations and frequently comments international events in the media.